о.Арониус (o_aronius) wrote,
о.Арониус
o_aronius

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Маймонид и дары волхвов

Поскольку во френдленте и окресностях в последнее время много постов о "дарах волхвов" и ажиотаже вокруг него - позволю себе и аз, многогрешный.

1. Обсуждение аутентичности реликвии несомненно представляет научный интерес, однако, как показывает жизнь, массу верующих эти вопросы волнуют крайне мало, независимо от конфессий. К примеру, аутентичность могил праматери Рахель и царя Давида является, мягко говоря, весьма сомнительной - и что, кому-то из тысяч иудейских паломников это мешает?

2. О том, людям, в массе своей, в Бога верить трудно, а хочется чего-нибудь попроще и поконкретнее, писал еще в XII веке р. Моше бен Маймон (Рамбам, Маймонид), величайший мыслитель еврейского средневековья и заочный учитель Фомы Аквинского. Более того - по его мнению, никакая религия не может существовать, не принимая во внимание и не делая уступок этой естественной потребности в магических артефактах и красивых ритуалах.
В Путеводителe колеблющихся, 3:32, главном философском труде Маймонида, эта идея, ИМХО, изложена ясно и недвусмысленно.

The Israelites were commanded to devote themselves to His service; comp. "and to serve him with all your heart" (ibid. xi. 13); "and you shall serve the Lord your God" (Exod. xxiii. 25); "and ye shall serve him" (Deut. xiii. 5). But the custom which was in those days general among all men, and the general mode of worship in which the Israelites were brought up, consisted in sacrificing animals in those temples which contained certain images, to bow down to those images, and to bum incense before them; religious and ascetic persons were in those days the persons that were devoted to the service in the temples erected to the stars, as has been explained by us. It was in accordance with the wisdom and plan of God, as displayed in the whole Creation, that He did not command us to give up and to discontinue all these manners of service; for to obey such a commandment it would have been contrary to the nature of man, who generally cleaves to that to which he is used; it would in those days have made the same impression as a prophet would make at present if he called us to the service of God and told us in His name, that we should not pray to Him, not fast, not seek His help in time of trouble; that we should serve Him in thought, and not by any action. For this reason God allowed these kinds of service to continue; He transferred to His service that which had formerly served as a worship of created beings, and of things imaginary and unreal, and commanded us to serve Him in the same manner.

3. Означает ли это, что "в Багдаде все спокойно"? Не уверен. Ибо вот что тот же Маймонид пишет далее:

We were not commanded to sacrifice in every place, and in every time, or to build a temple in every place, or to permit any one who desires to become priest and to sacrifice. On the contrary, all this is prohibited unto us. Only one temple has been appointed, "in the place which the Lord shall choose" (Deut. xii. 26); in no other place is it allowed to sacrifice: comp. "Take heed to thyself, that thou offer not thy burnt-offerings in every place that thou seest" (ibid. v. 13); and only the members of a particular family were allowed to officiate as priests. All these restrictions served to limit this kind of worship, and keep it within those bounds within which God did not think it necessary to abolish sacrificial service altogether.

Выделенные слова, ИМХО, являются ключевыми. Ибо когда соответствующие явления и практики выходят из установленных пределов - и паки и паким, когда этому всячески способствуют власть имущие, в том числе и не самыми честными способами - то тогда неизбежно начинаются "тайны древних шумеров" и прочие радости, делающие религию именно такой, какой ее видит атеистичская пропаганда.
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