о.Арониус (o_aronius) wrote,
о.Арониус
o_aronius

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С рабочего стола: об отношениях народа и его религиозной элиты

Работая над очередным проектом, неожиданно для себя обнаружил талмудический текст, который я давным-давно видел, а потом долго и безуспешно искал:

Our Rabbis taught: Who is an 'Am ha-arez? Whoever does not recite the Shema' morning and evening with its accompanying benedictions; such is the statement of R. Meir. The Sages say: Whoever does not put on the phylacteries. Ben Azzai says: Whoever has not the fringe upon his garment. R. Jonathan b. Joseph says: Whoever has sons and does not rear them to study Torah.

Так что встречающееся в литературе мнение, что "простолюдины" эпохи 2 Храма всего-лишь "не соблюдали заповеди, связанные с обработкой земли и ритуальной чистотой", следует признать верным, однако далеко не полным. Судя по приведенном отрывку, религиозные стандарты "народных масс" были в то время существенно ниже.

Кстати, если кому-то интересно, как в то время складывались отношения религиозной элиты и "простoнародья" - советую заглянуть в трактат Псахим:

The Beraisa describes Amei ha'Aretz as an abomination, their wives as a creepy-crawly (since they are not careful in the performance of Mitzvos), and about their daughters, the Torah writes in Ki Savo "Cursed be the one who lies with an animal".
The daughter of an Am ha'Aretz is compared to an animal - because, like an animal, she does not understand the difference between what is right and what is wrong (particularly with regard to the Dinim of Nidah, evident form the Pasuk itself - see also Agados Maharsha in Eruvin 55b).
We learn from "Zos Toras ha'Behemah v'ha'Of" - that it is only someone who studies Torah who is permitted to eat the meat of animals and birds, but not an Am ha'Aretz (man is only permitted to eat animals because they are superior to them, but not Amei ha'Aretz, who are on a par with them).

Rebbi Elazar forbids accompanying an Am ha'Aretz on a journey - because, if he doesn't care about his own life, why should he care about somebody else's?
The reason that he said 'tear him apart' and not 'Shecht him' - is because 'to Shecht him' implies with a Berachah, and he is not even worthy that a Berachah should be made on his account.

Rebbi Meir compares someone who marries off his daughter to an Am ha'Aretz, to tying her up in front of a lion - because just like a lion does not wait to eat its prey until it is dead, so too, is an Am ha'Aretz Bo'el without first appeasing his wife (ignoring or ignorant of the Mitzvah to first put one's wife in the right mood before Be'ilah).
(d) The only reason that the Amei-ha'Aretz did not kill the Talmidei-Chachamim is because they needed them for commerce


Впрочем, народ, похоже, платил своим пастырям взаимностью:

When Rebbi Akiva was an Am ha'Aretz, he used to say - 'Give me a Talmid-Chacham, and I will bite him like a donkey'! He said 'like a donkey' and not 'like a dog' - because a donkey breaks a bone with its bite whereas a dog does not.

Наверное, надо бы присобачить к этим текстам какой-то вывод или мораль. Но как-то не сложилось. Поэтому просто оставим тексты, как они есть - в качестве полезной информации для тех, кто интересуется настоящей, а не гламурно-кошерной историей.

P.S.Кстати, на той же странице трактата Сота находится еще один текст - крайне интересный в свете уверений определенного рода пропаганды, что во времена Талмуда женщины, якобы, не молились в синагогах:

A certain widow had a Synagogue in her neighbourhood; yet she used to come daily to the School of R. Johanan18 and pray there. He said to her, 'My daughter, is there not a Synagogue in your neighbourhood?...
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