November 7th, 2011

o_aronius

Критика и агиография, или особенности народной религиозности

Дочитал на днях The Regal Way: The Life and Times of Rabbi Israel of Ruzhin израильского историка Давида Ассафа. Книжка оказалась не столь интересной, как я надеялся - разве что главы о хасидском дворе как экономическом предориятии - цадики, как известно, были великими мастерами по части самофинансирования на счет паствы - безусловно доставили. Однако отдельные жемчужины в монографии есть - например, история женитьбы цадика Цви из Риманова на молодой красивой вдове Малке (после смерти Цви ставшей женой главного героя книги)

Данная женитьба с самого начала стала объектом жесткой критики просвещенцев, обвинявших Цви, что он увел жену у мужа:

It was said that Rabbi Zevi had hankered after Malkah when her first husband was still alive. Solomon Rubin, a Galician maskil born in 1823, later told of rumors that had been circulating in his birthplace Dolina, when he was a child: Malkah, who was particularly good-looking, and her husband had come before Rabbi Zevi, complaining that their married life was unhappy. The zaddik, who was attracted to her, instructed the husband to divorce her, on the grounds that the match did not have Divine approval. The husband did as he was bid, and Rabbi Zevi himself married the woman shortly thereafter.

Как пишет Ассаф, эта история - безусловно выдумка, поскольку, будучи коэном, Цви никак не мог жениться на разведенной. Однако сами хасиды, в своих преданиях, описывают предысторию брака своего цадика еще круче:

The original version, as told in a hasidic source, is also not very kind to the protagonists.According to this seemingly reliable source, Malkah came to the zaddik as a young, childless widow, complaining that she could not remarry until her late husband’s two-year-old brother was old enough to release her from the
levirate bond. Rabbi Zevi asked her if she would like to marry him, as he “understood that she had a great soul,” and Malkah gladly agreed: But she said: “What shall be done with regard to the brother?” And he replied: “Don’t worry about it.” Thereupon the infant brother died.

Для тех, кто не знает иврит - титул "цадик" дословно переводится как "праведник".:)

И еще одна история - как дети цадика Мордехая из Чернобыля боролись за мощи своего отца

Mordekhai of Chernobyl. While he was still alive, on his deathbed, his son,
Jacob Israel of Hornostopol, tried to ensure that his father would spend his
last days with him, “so that his tomb would be there and that his hometown
would become a fortress and main center for Chernobyl hasidim. But his saintly brothers, who perceived his intention, made haste with their father to Kiev.”

Пы.Сы. Ну и отдельное удовольствие - русские источники в прочтении исследователя, который не слишком дружит с великим и могучим. Не заглядывая под кат - как вы думаете, какой российский феномен, по мнению автора, называется kostroy?


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